Poverty

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite of development outcomes- life expectancy, functional literacy and per capita income; and is a general measure of province’s poverty situation.  Using the HDI as gauge,  Lanao del Norte’s belongs to the poorest provinces with an index of 0.470 in 1997 and 0.512 in 2000. All provinces in the region were classified as having medium human development. However, no province in the region had HDI higher than the country.  This implies that the provinces in Visayas and Luzon have higher HDI compared to the provinces in Mindanao.

 

Table 1.   Human Development Index Region X, by Province, 1997 and  2000

Province

1997

Rank

2000

Rank

Bukidnon

0.538

45

0.569

45

Camiguin

0.537

47

0.563

50

Lanao del Norte

0.470

71

0.512

69

Misamis Occidental

0.538

46

0.552

59

Misamis Oriental

0.543

41

0.575

38

Source:  NSO

The province improved in all three (3) indicators of HDI- health as measured by life expectancy, education as measured by the combined elementary and secondary enrolment rate and functional literacy rate and income as measured by real per capita income.  However, all these HDI indicators are lower than the national level.

 

On life expectancy, the province experienced a mere 2% increase in the average level of years its people is expected to live from the time of their birth from 64.10 years in 1997 to 65.39 years in 2000.

 

In 2000, combined elementary and secondary enrolment rate increased by 5.9% from the previous level and with functional literacy remained rate in the same level, the province index on education increased by 1.9%.

 

Among these indicators, the province performed better on the average per capita income.  Real per capita income of the province in 2000 is 12.3% higher than the 1997 figure.

Table 2.  Human Development Index , 1997 and 2000

Year

Life Expectancy

Education

Income

HDI

Level

(In Yrs)

Index

Combined

Enrolment Rate

Functional

Literacy

Index

Real Per Capita Income

Income

Index

2000

 

Philippines

Lanao del Norte

 

68.94

65.39

0.73

0.67

84.5

73.7

83.79

73.39

0.840

0.735

21,104

10,821

0.394

0.127

0.656

0.512

1997

 

Philippines

Lanao del Norte

 

68.03

64.10

0.717

0.652

82.9

69.6

83.79

73.39

0.835

0.721

21,887

9,637

0.336

0.036

0.629

0.470

Source: NSO

Poverty Incidence

Lanao del Norte’s annual per capita poverty threshold in 2006 is P15,225.00.   This indicates that an average family with five (5) members would need P76,125.00 to be able to buy their  food and other basic needs.

 

Poverty incidence among families in Lanao del Norte shows a slight decline of 2.4 percentage points from 46.5% in 2003 to 44.1 in 2006. This is in contrast to the other provinces in Region 10 and the national level as well, where poverty incidences increased.  Although Lanao del Norte is a gainer, a far second to Bukidnon, its poverty incidence is higher than that of the regional average.

 

Among the provinces in  Region 10 only Lanao del Norte and Bukidnon recorded a decrease in the magnitude of poor families from 2003 to 2006. However, the increases in the magnitude of poor families in the other provinces brought a substantial increase in the number of poor families regionwide.

 

 

Table 3.      Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Families, Region X, by Province, 2003 & 2006

Region/Province

 

Annual Per Capital Poverty Threshold

(in pesos)

Poverty Incidence Among Families

(%)

Magnitude of Poor Families

2003

2006

2003

2006

2003

2006

Philippines 

12,309

15,057

24.4

26.9

4,022,695

4,677,305

Region X

11,605

14,199

37.7

36.1

278,538

285,054

Bukidnon

11,083

12,186

36.9

29.6

79,985

68,973

Camiguin

12,109

16,145

34.5

39.3

5,356

6,619

Lanao del Norte

12,103

15,225

46.5

44.1

73,114

72,484

Misamis Occidental

11,711

14,555

48.1

48.8

50,189

54,247

Misamis Oriental

11,594

14,787

28.5

31.5

69,895

82,730

Source: NSCB

 

 

Lanao del Norte’s annual per capita food threshold in 2006 is P10,196.00.   This indicates that an average family with five (5) members would need P50,980.00 to be able to buy their basic food needs.

 

Subsistence incidence among families show an improvement from 26.1% to 24.1%. It can be noted that Lanao del Norte has the second highest subsistence incidence among the provinces in the region, next to Misamis Oriental.  Moreover, the provincial subsistence incidence is substantially higher than that of the regional (19.2%) and national (11%) figures.

 

In terms of magnitude of subsistence poor families, there has been a reduction of 1,477 families, from 41,020 in 2003 to 39,543 in 2006.  It is worthy to note that only Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte, among the provinces in the region, experienced a reduction in the number of subsistence poor families.

 

Table 4. Subsistence Incidence and Magnitude of Subsistence Poor Families, Region X, by Province, 2003 & 2006

Region/Province

 

Annual Per Capita Food  Threshold

(in pesos)

Subsistence Incidence Among Families

(%)

Magnitude of Subsistence Poor Families

2003

2006

2003

2006

2003

2006

Philippines 

8,149

10,025

10.2

11. 0

1,675,179

1,913,668

Region X

7,995

9,757

19.5

19.2

144,286

151,307

Bukidnon

7,693

9,219

22.2

15. 5

48,072

36,079

Camiguin

8,617

10,418

14.6

20.5

2,262

3,455

Lanao del Norte

8,381

10,196

26.1

24.1

41,020

39,543

Misamis Occidental

7,906

9,717

21.4

26.2

22,313

29,127

Misamis Oriental

7,987

9,380

12.5

16.4

30,619

43,103

Source:  NSCB

 

Municipal Poverty Incidence

Except for Linamon, all the municipalities of Lanao del Norte have poverty incidences higher than 50%.  This is based on the methodology developed by NSCB to generate municipal poverty incidence.  The methodology used the 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey and pegged a poverty line of $2 per capita per day.  The result also showed that four municipalities, namely Tagoloan, Magsaysay, Tangkal and Salvador have poverty indicence higher than 70%.

Table 5.   Poverty Incidence by Municipality, 2000

Municipality

Poverty Incidence

Average Household Size

Estimated Poor Families

Tagoloan

73.46

5.54

1,089

Magsaysay

74.16

5.17

1,609

Tangkal

72.51

6.83

650

Salvador

72.07

4.98

2,453

Poona Piagapo

66.72

5.93

1,812

Nunungan

65.80

4.94

1,625

Sapad

65.71

5.03

1,980

Kapatagan

65.55

5.13

5,469

Munai

64.14

5.27

1,970

Lala

64.21

5.19

6,981

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

63.35

5.36

4,948

Matungao

60.21

5.60

997

Baroy

58.14

4.98

2,380

Tubod

56.63

4.90

4,970

Kolambugan

55.23

5.78

1,115

Pantar

55.04

5.01

2,664

Maigo

54.95

5.13

1,908

Kauswagan

54.72

4.96

1,694

Bacolod

54.71

4.83

1,923

Baloi

52.29

5.57

3,558

Pantao Ragat

51.75

6.27

1,360

Linamon

43.99

5.20

1,264

Poverty Diagnosis

The poverty diagnosis workshop was conducted by the province in 2006 to get indications on who are the poor, why are they poor, how many are they and where are they.  The result was documented in the Provincial Poverty Reduction Plan and is summarized in Table 3.168.

 

 

Table 6. Identifying the Poor: Who are they, how many are they and where are they? a/

Who are they poor?

How many are they? b/

Where are they? c/

Control over resources/ assets:    
  1. Small coconut, corn and rice farmers

20%

Upland areas
  1. Landless: farm laborers, tenants

20%

Upland and lowland agricultural areas
  1. Marginal fisherfolks

10%

Coastal barangays
Enabling factors:

 
  1. Unskilled workers

15%

Province-wide
  1. Disabled persons

0.5%

Sporadically located
  1. Students

0.5%

Sporadically located
  1. Abandoned children

0.5%

Sporadically located
Natural and man-made disaster factors:

 
  1. Internally displaced persons

2%

9 conflict affected municipalities
Economic opportunity factors:

 
  1. Jobless/unemployed

5%

Spread across municipalities
  1. Seasonally employed

Rural areas
  1. Small businessmen

105

Urban and urbanizing barangays
  1. Lowly paid government workers

2%

Different local government units/ national agencies
  1. Informal sectors: ambulant vendors, drivers, domestic helpers

5%

Urban and urbanizing barangays
Total

100%

 

a/ Result of a poverty diagnosis workshop conducted for the Provincial Poverty Reduction Plan, 2006-2010

b/ Ballpark percentages against the total number of poor families estimated at 73,114

c/ Limited to general description subject to validation using the CBMS result